Rajput History

Early History (6th to 8th c.)

Within 15 years of the death of the Muhammad, the caliph Usman sent a sea expedition to raid Thana and Broach on the Bombay coast. Other unsuccessful raiding expeditions to Sindh took place in 662 and 664 CE. Indeed, within a hundred years after Muhammad's death, Muslim armies had overrun much of Asia as far as the Hindu Kush; however, it was not until c.1000 CE that they could establish any foothold in India.

Rai Dynasty, who ruled Sindh in the 6th and 7th centuries and were displaced by an Arab army led by Bin Qasim, is sometimes held to have been Rajputs. According to some sources, Bin Qasim, an Arab who invaded Sindh in the 8th century, also attacked Chittorgarh, and was defeated by Bappa Rawal.

The Pratiharas rebuffed Arab invasion in the ninth century. Significant Muslim invasions were then not attempted until the eleventh century, largely due to the formidable reputation of the Rajput clans.

Certain other invasions by marauding "Yavvanas" are also recorded in this era. By this time, the appellation "Yavvana" (literally: "Ionian/Greek") was used in connection to any tribe that emerged from the west and north-west of present-day
Pakistan. These invasions may therefore have been a continuation of the usual invasions into India by warlike but less civilized tribes from the north-west, and not a reference to the Greeks or Indo-Greeks. Lalitaditya of Kashmir defeated one such Yavvana invasion in the 8th century and the Pratiharas rebuffed another in the 9th century.

Rajput kingdoms (8th to 11th c.)

 The first Rajput kingdoms are attested to in the 7th century and it was during the 9th, 10th, & 11th centuries that the Rajputs rose to prominence in the Indian history. The four Agnivanshi clans, namely the Pratiharas (Pariharas), Solankis (Chaulukyas), Paramaras (Parmars), and Chauhans (Chahamanas), rose to prominence first.


established the first Rajput kingdom in Marwar in southwestern Rajasthan. Later they established themselves at Ujjain and ruled Malwa, and afterwards at Kanauj in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, from which they ruled much of northern India, from Kathiawar in the west to Magadha in the east, in the ninth century. Chauhans established themselves at Ajmer in central Rajasthan Solankis in GujaratParamaras in Malwa.
But there were other Rajputs also who rose to prominence. Clans claiming descent from the Solar and Lunar races, who were originally vassals of the other clans, established their independent states later.

Guhilas (Guhilote or Gehlot, later called the Sisodias) established the state of Mewar (later Udaipur), under Bappa Rawal, who ruled at Chittorgarh (Sanskrit name Chitrakuta), which was given in dowry to Bappa in 734 for his bravery. Chittor, was then ruled by the Mori clan of Rajputs. Maan Mori was their last king at Chittor. It is believed the word Mori is a corruption of Maurya, the famous dynasty. The Kachwaha (Kacchapghata) established their rule in Narwar in 8th century. One of their descendant Dulah Rai established his rule in Dhundhar in 11th century, with their capital at Amber, and later Jaipur. The Chandela clan ruled Bundelkhand after the tenth century, occupying the fortress-city of Kalinjar and building the famous temple-city of Khajuraho. The Tomaras established a state in Haryana, founding the city of Dhiliki (later Delhi) in 736.
The Kachwahas, Chandelas, and Tomaras were originally vassals of the
Pratihara kingdom.

The organization of
Rajput clan finally crystallized in this period. Intermarriage among the Rajput clans interlinked the various regions of India and Pakistan, facilitating the flow of trade and scholarship. Archaeological evidence and contemporary texts suggest that Indian society achieved significant prosperity during this era.

The literature composed in this period, both in
Sanskrit and in the Apabhramshas, constitutes a substantial segment of classical Indian literature. The early 11th century saw the reign of the polymath King Bhoja, Paramara ruler of Malwa. He was not only a patron of literature and the arts but was himself a distinguished writer. His Samarangana-sutradhara deals with architecture and his Raja-Martanda is a famous commentary on the Yoga-sutras. Many major monuments of northern and central India, including those at Khajuraho, date from this period.

Pratiharas The Imperial
Pratiharas established their rule over Malwa and ruled from Bhinmal and afterward Ujjaini in the 8th & 9th century. One branch of the clan established a state in (Rever)Tarangagadh in the 11th century. Marwar in 6th and 7th century, where they held sway until they were supplanted by the Rathores in the 14th century. Around 816 AD, the Pratiharas of Ujjaini conquered Kannauj, from this city they ruled much of northern India for a century. They went into decline after Rashtrakuta invasions in the early 10th century.

Rathore The
Rathore or Rathor or Rathod is a Rajput tribe of India. Rathors in India are a Rajput clan from the Marwar region of western Rajasthan, inhabiting Idar state of Gujarat and also the Chhapra and Muzaffarpur districts of Bihar in very small numbers. In India, their native languages are Hindi and its dialects (such as Rajasthani, Marwari and other languages of Rajasthan, Gujarati and Kutchi in Gujarat, as well as Punjabi in the Punjab a dialect of Punjabi called Rathi spoken in Ratia and Tohana in present day Haryana. Rathore are the people from the west Rajasthan. Rathore's have many gotras, most of these gotras are from the name of the great warriors of the past and gotras are being used by their family members. Rathore's were said to be the worshipers of sun. To understand the huge clan of Rathore's we will have understand their areas they occupy. Rathore's of Jodhpur were supreme in present districts such as - Jodhpur, Pali, Ajmer, Nagaur, Barmer, Sirohi. Rathore, s of Bikaner were occupant of the area that included districts Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh.

Dynasties belonging to this clan ruled a number of kingdoms and princely states in Rajasthan and neighbouring states before India's independence in 1947. The largest and oldest among these was Jodhpur, in Marwar and Bikaner. Also the Idar State in Gujrat. The Maharaja of Jodhpur, is regarded as the head of the extended Rathore clan of Hindu Rajputs. Even in the modern times the clout of this clan in the democratic world is such that a large number of MLAs and MPs have been elected from among them.

Prominent Sub-clans are Banirot, Bika, Kandhalot, Rawatot, Bidawat, Kumpawat, Champawat, Medatiya, Jodha, Jaitawat, Khokra, Karnot.

Sisodias The
Sisodias claim their descent from Lord Rama, the hero of the famous Hindu epic Ramayana. It is also said that the group descended from the Sun God and is thus known as the Suryavanshi or Children of Sun. The prince of Mewar is treated as the legitimate heir to the throne of Rama.

They trace their descent from Bappa Rawal, purported scion of the Guhilot or Guhila or Gehlot or Gahlot clan, who established himself as ruler of Mewar in 734 AD, ruling from the fortress of Chittor (or Chittorgarh).

The Mewar flag is disinguished for its "crimson" flag. During both times of war and peace, this standard could always be seen flying high. It depicts the image of a dagger and a flaming sun. Robert Taylor of the Bengal Civil Service records in his book, "The Princely Armory", "...for eight centuries a golden sun in a crimson field has floated over the head of the Rana at feast and fray, and is conspicuous in the ornament of his palace...On the top of the mast is the face of the Sun, embossed in gold. On the triangular Nishan (flag), the human face is embroidered in gold depicting the Sun. It has a gold tassle at the end. A Katar (a type of dagger) with silver threads on the Nishan completes this simple design. The Sun signifies that the Nishan is of the "Surya Vansi" (Sun Dynasty) Maharanas of Mewar.

Prominent Sub-clans include Gehlot, Sisodia, Gahlot, Chundawat, Chandrawat, shaktawat, Dungarpur, Banswara, Mahthan, Ranawat.

Bargujar The
Bargujars (Birgoojur) were the vassals of the gurjara pratihars. They are one of the most revered and most fierce clan of the rajputs ever known. They constituted the main force in "Haraval" Tukdi the first line of offence in a battle. The bargujars chose to die rather to submit to the supremacy of the Muslim kings. Many bargujars were put to death for not giving their daughters to Muslim rulers. Some bargujars changed their clan name to sikarwar to escape mass genocide carried out against them.

Lava (one of the Sons of King Rama) was their ancestor and so they are also known as Raghav. Raghav was the great great grandfather of Rama. Bargujars take this name as children of Raghav dynasty.

Bargujar is a
suryavanshi clan. Prominent sub-clans include Lawtamia, Madadh, Khadad, Taparia.

Pundir The
Pundir are a Suryavanshi branch of Rajputs, one of the thirty six royal rajput clans. The Pundir Rajputs still hold riyasat in Nagaur and Saharanpur where their Kuldevi's are situated. Their Shakha is Koolwal and their Kuldevis are Shakumbhri Devi and Dhadimati Mata with a few of the Gotras shared by them being Bhardwaj(भरद्वाज), Parashara and Pulastya. Most of the Pundirs are today based mainly around the North Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab and Haryana. Elliot writes that Uttar Pradesh (Hardwar region), where they are most prominent today, has over 1,440 villages claimed by Pundir Rajputs with high concentrations in the districts of Dehradun, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Aligarh and Etawah. According to the British census of 1891 the population of the Pundir Rajputs was recorded at approximately 29,000.

Solankis were descended from the Chalukyas of Karnataka who ruled much of peninsular India between the 6th and 12th centuries. In the 10th century, a local branch of the clan established control over Gujarat and ruled a state centered around the town of Patan. They went into decline in the 13th century and were displaced by the Vaghela.

Paramaras originated from the Rashtrakutas and rose to power in the 10th century. They ruled Malwa and the area at the border between present-day Gujarat and Rajasthan. Bhoja, the celebrated king of Malwa, belonged to this dynasty. In the 12th century, the Paramaras declined in power due to conflict and succumbed to attack from the Delhi sultanate in 1305. They have families migrated to south-wards in Gujrath, Maharashtra, holding many important positions as regional war-lords and Chiefs of private armies. The origin reference about Naik-Nimbalkar of Phaltan state and Dalvi- Deshmukh of Nasik is available in many British records and Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 20, p. 101.

Rever's were of the State of Tarangagadh. The sword of Rever is known in the history of war in 11th century. They ruled Taranga and the area at the border between present-day Gujarat and Rajasthan belonged to this dynasty.

Kachwaha The
Kachwaha (also spelled as Kachavāhā,Kacchavahas, Kachhawa, Kuchhwaha & Kushwah including Kacchapghata, Kakutstha, and Kurma) are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan who ruled a number of kingdoms and princely states in India such as Alwar, Maihar, Talcher, while the largest and oldest state was Amber (city) later known as Jaipur. The Pachrang flag of the former Jaipur state. Prior to the adoption of the Pachrang (five coloured) flag by Raja Man Singh I of Amber, the original flag of the Kachwahas was known as the 'Jharshahi' (tree-marked) flagJaipur(Jainagara), an extension of the old kingdom of Amber, was founded by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II in 1727.The Maharaja of Jaipur is regarded as the head of the extended Kachwaha clan. Overall, sub-clans of the Kachwaha number around 71. Prominent sub-clans of the Kachhawa clan include: Rajawat, Shekhawat, Sheobramhpota, Naruka, Nathawat, Khangarot and Kumbhani. The Kachhawas belong to the Suryavanshi lineage, which claims descent from the Surya and Sun Dynasty of the ancient Kshatriyas. Specifically, they claim descent from Kusha[1] younger of the twin sons of Rama, hero of the Ramayana, to whom patrilineal descent from Surya is in turn ascribed. Indeed, the name Kachawaha is held by many[2] to be a patronymic derived from the name "Kusha".

Prominent Sub-clans are Shekhawat, Naruka, Rajawat, Nathawat, Kalyanot, Jamwal, Minhas, Manhas, Baghel, Jasrotia, Nindar.

Chandelas In the early 10th century, the
Chandelas ruled the fortress-city of Kalinjar. A dynastic struggle (c.912-914 CE) among the Pratiharas provided them with the opportunity to extend their domain. They captured the strategic fortress of Gwalior (c.950) under the leadership of Dhanga (ruled 950-1008). Dhanga's grandson Vidyadhara (ruled 1017-29) expanded the Chandela kingdom to its greatest size, from the Chambal river in the northwest to the Narmada River in the south, thus covering a large portion of the present-day state of Madhya Pradesh.

Tomar/ Tanwar
Tomar, or Tanwar, are Chandravanshi Rajputs, and descended from Mahabharata's great hero, Arjun, through his son Abhimanyu, and grandson, Parikshat. Chakravarti Samrat (King) Yudhishtra, founded Indraprastha, present day Delhi. Tomars (King Anangpal Tomar) conquered and re-established the Delhi Kingdom in CE 792 and founded the city of 'Dhillika,' (modern Delhi). Besides Delhi, Tomar's rule covered western U.P. and most of present day Haryana and Punjab. Tomar's rule lasted until CE 1162 when last Tomar King Anangpal II appointed Prithviraj Chauhan, his grandson (his daughter's son), and King of Ajmer- as 'catetaker,' since his own sons were very young at that time. According to the accounts kept by Tomar/ Tanwar 'Jagas,' King Anangpal Tomar appointed Prithviraj Chauhan as caretaker only when he went on a religious pilgrimage. It is also said by Tanwar 'Jagas' that when King Anangpal returned, Prithviraj refused to hand over the kingdom to him. It is worth mentioning that 'Jagas' are a caste in Rajasthen who are hereditary keepers of genealogical records of Rajputs, and present 'Jagas' of Tomar/Tanwar Rajputs reside near Jaipur, Rajasthan.

Pathania is the name of a branch of the Tomar (Tanwar, Tuar) Clan of chandravanshi Rajputs, descended from Lord Arjuna, the Hero of Mahabharata. It is one of the ruling Rajput Clans of India. They mostly live in and around Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Jammu in north India. This clan has to its credit three Maha Vir Chakra winners in the Indian Army. This clan has also won many other gallantry awards while serving in the British army of India.

Chauhans originated as feudatories of the Pratiharas and rose to power in the wake of the decline of that power. Their state was initially centered around Sambhar in present-day Rajasthan. In the 11th century, they founded the city of Ajmer which became their capital. In the 12th century, their the then King Prithviraj Chauhan acquired Delhi from his maternal grand father, the then Tomar King Anangpal II Tomar (see above under Tomars or Tanwars). Their most famous ruler was Prithviraj Chauhan, who won the First Battle of Tarain against an invading Muslim army but lost the Second Battle of Tarain the following year. This loss heralded a prolonged period of Muslim rule over northern India. After the death of Manik Rae Chauhan (Ruler of Sambhar), his son Chandrapal Dev came and settle at a place called Bhadaura near present place Bah in U.P.,his sons were called BHADAURIA and till date this clan is now seen as a sub class of Chauhans. the last chauhan king was in mainpuri district (U.P), who fought in first war of indpendance in 1857, known as "judev"

Minhas or Manhas or Minhas-Dogra is a Rajput clan from the Jammu region of the Indian subcontinent. It is an off-shoot of Jamwal-Dogra Rajputs, the founders of the city and state of Jammu and its rulers from ancient times to 1948 C.E. In antiquity of rule, which is generally considered a benchmark of royalty, they are second to none, but the great Katoch Rajputs of Trigarta and Kangra. Paying tribute to the antiquity of their royal lineage, Sir Lepel Griffin says, “These royal dynasties may have been already ancient when Moses was leading the Israelites out of Egypt, and the Greeks were steering their swift ships to Troy.” Minhas Rajputs are Suryavanshis and claim descent from Rama a legendary king of Ayodhya. In Rajputana, their closest cousins are the Kachwaha Rajputs of Jaipur.

They trace their ancestry to the Ikshvaku dynasty of Northern India (The same clan in which Lord Rama was born. He, therefore is the 'kuldevta'(family deity) of the Hindu Minhas Rajputs). Specifically, they claim descent from Kusha younger of the twin sons of Rama, hero of the Ramayana, to whom patrilineal descent from Surya is in turn ascribed.

Islamic invasions (11th to 12th c.)

In the early 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni conquered the Hindu Shahi kingdom in the Punjab. His raids into northern India weakened the Pratihara kingdom, which was drastically reduced in size and came under the control of the Chandelas. Mahmud sacked temples across northern India, including the temple at Somnath in Gujarat, but his permanent conquests were limited to the Punjab, and Somnath was rebuilt after the raid. In 1018 CE, Mahmud sacked the city of Kannauj, seat of the Pratihara kingdom, but withdrew immediately to Ghazni, being interested in booty rather than empire.

In the ensuing chaos,
Rathores, as the Gahadvala dynasty established a modest state centered around Kannauj, ruling the Ganges plain from the late 11th through the 12th century, and conquering Marwar in the 13th. They were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1194 CE, when the city was sacked by the latter. Meanwhile, a nearby state centered around present-day Delhi was ruled successively by the Tomara and Chauhan clans. The early 11th century also saw the reign of the polymath king Bhoj, the Paramara ruler of Malwa.

Prithiviraj III, ruler of Delhi, defeated Muhammad of Ghor at the First Battle of Tarain (1191 CE). Muhammad returned the following year and defeated Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain (1192 AD). In this battle, as in many others of this era, rampant internecine conflict among Rajput kingdoms facilitated the victory of the invaders.

Medieval Rajput States (12th to 16th c.)

 Mehrangarh Fort, the ancient home of the Rathore rulers of Marwar in RajasthanChittorgarh witnessed several heroic battles between Rajputs and Muslim invaders. Three different times did its womenfolk perform Jauhar. Rajputs reestablished their independence, and the Rajput states were established as far east as Bengal and north into the Punjab.

Prithviraj Chauhan proved to be the last Rajput ruler of Delhi. The Chauhans reestablished themselves at Ranthambore, led by Govinda, grandson of Prithviraj III. Jalore was ruled by another branch of Chauhans, the Songaras. Another branch of the Chauhans, the Hadas, established a kingdom in Hadoti in the mid-13th century.

Rever Maharaja Ranavghansinh ruled Taranga, in the 11th century. The Tomaras established themselves at Gwalior, and the ruler Man Singh built the fortress which still stands there. Mewar emerged as the leading Rajput state, and Rana Kumbha expanded his kingdom at the expense of the sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat.

Muhammad's armies brought down the Gahadvala kingdom of Kannauj in
1194 CE. Some surviving members of the Gahadvala dynasty are said to have refugeed to the western desert, formed the Rathore clan, and later founded the state of Marwar. The Kachwaha clan came to rule Dhundhar (later Jaipur) with their capital at Amber.

Other relocations surmised to have occurred in this period include the emigration of Rajput clans to the
Himalayas. The Katoch clan, the Chauhans of Chamba and certain clans of Uttarakhand and Nepal are counted among this number.

Delhi Sultanate The
Delhi Sultanate was founded by Qutb ud din Aybak, Muhammad of Ghor's successor, in the early 14th century. Sultan Alauddin Khilji) conquered Gujarat (1297), Malwa (1305), Ranthambore (1301), Chittorgarh (1303) Jalore, and Bhinmal (1311). All were conquered after long sieges and fierce resistance from their Rajput defenders.

The "First Jauhar," in particular the siege of Chittor (1303), its brave defence by the
Guhilas, the saga of Rani Padmini, and the Jauhar, are the stuff of immortal legend. This incident has had a defining impact upon the Rajput character and is detailed in a succeeding section.

Ala-ud-din Khilji delegated the administration of the newly conquered areas to his principal Rajput collaborator, Maldeo Songara, ruler of
Jalore. Maldeo Songara was soon displaced by his son-in-law Hammir, a scion of the lately displaced Guhila clan, who re-established the state of Mewar c.1326 CE. Mewar was to emerge as a leading Rajput state, after Rana Kumbha expanded his kingdom at the expense of the sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat.

Mughal Era (16th-18th c.)

Jaipur is one of several major cities founded by Rajput rulers during the Mughal Era. The "Jharokha" arches, now regarded as typical of Rajput architecture, were actually brought to Rajasthan from Bengal by Rajput rulers serving as Mughal officers in that province. The Delhi sultanate was extinguished when Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. Rana Sanga, ruler of Mewar, rallied an army to challenge Babur. He was betrayed by one of his Rajput generals and was defeated by Babur at the Battle of Khanua on March 16, 1527; The Rajput rulers agreed to pay tribute to Babur, but most retained control of their states, and struggles between Babur's successor Humayun and the Suri Dynasty for control of the Sultanate preoccupied the Muslims for several decades. It was not until the reign of Akbar that the structure of relations between the Mughal imperium and the Rajput states took definitive shape.

During the
Second Jauhar Rana Sanga died soon after the battle of Khanua. Shortly afterwards, Mewar came under the regency of his widow, Rani Karmavati. The kingdom was menaced by Bahadur Shah, ruler of Gujarat. According to one romantic legend of dubious veracity, Karmavati importuned the assistance of Humayun, son of her late husband's foe. The help arrived, but too late; Chittor was reduced by Bahadur Shah. This is the occasion for the second of the three Jauhars performed at Chittor. Karmavati led the ladies of the citadel into death by fire, while the menfolk sallied out to meet the besieging Muslim army in a hopeless fight to the death.

Mughal-Rajput Alliance Babur's son
Humayun was a ruler who was forced to spend long periods in exile. His son Akbar; however, was made of a different mettle. Akbar consolidated his inheritance and expanded what had been the Delhi sultanate into a wide empire. A main factor in this success was indubitably his co-option of native Rajput chiefs into his empire-building project. His reign countenanced, for the first time, the involvement of Hindus in the affairs of the empire.

The Rajput chiefs collaborated with alacrity, an alliance cemented by marriage, with numerous Rajput noblewomen being wed to Mughal grandees. The
Kachwahas were the first to extend matrimonial alliances with Akbar; they pioneered a trend that soon turned pervasive and played no small role in extending Rajput influence across the Indian sub-continent, from Bengal to Afghanistan, to the Deccan. Indeed, two successive Mughal emperors, Jehangir and Shah Jehan, were born to Rajput mothers.

Kachwahas were the first to give a daughter to Akbar. This prompted
Maharana Pratap to ban marriages between his loyal rajputs with other rajputs of Rajasthan. The Kachwaha rulers of Jaipur and Rathore rulers of Marwar became tributaries of the empire. The Sisodias of Mewar and their vassals, the Hadas of Bundi, continued to refuse Mughal hegemony, and Akbar invaded Mewar, capturing Chittorgarh in 1568 after a long siege. The Sesodias of Mewar moved the capital to the more defensible location of Udaipur and carried on fighting the Mughals. Akbar respected the martial prowess of the Rajputs, and he married a Rajput princess, and Rajput generals, particularly the Kachwahas of Jaipur, commanded some Mughal armies. The Rajputs were betrayed by their kings, the warriors were never asked about their opinions about marrying their women to the Mughals. The royal families of the clans made the decisions and it was always the one family and not the clan which gave in to the mughal regime.

Rajput chiefs served as Mughal officers and administrators across the Mughal Empire and enjoyed much influence in the government. In this period, the aristocratic image of the Rajputs can be said to have finally crystallized; consequently, caste-divisions became rigid. The trend of political relations between Rajput states and the central power was the precursor for similar relations between them and the British.

Aurangzeb and Rajput Rebellion The Mughal emperor
Aurangzeb, who was far less tolerant of Hinduism than his predecessors, put a Muslim on the throne of Marwar when Maharaja Jaswant Singh, ruler of Marwar, died without a child. This enraged the Rathores. Ajit Singh, Jaswant Singh's son was born after his death. Marwar nobles asked Aurangzeb to give the throne back to Ajit but Aurangzeb refused and instead tried to kill the infant Ajit. Durgadas Rathore and others smuggled Ajit out of Delhi and did not let pursuing Mughals capture them and reached Jaipur safely. This started the 30 year rajput rebellion against Aurangzeb. This cemented all the Rajput clans into a bond of union, and a triple alliance was formed by the three states of Marwar, Mewar, and Jaipur, to throw off the Mughal yoke. One of the conditions of this alliance was that the rulers of Jodhpur and Jaipur should regain the privilege of marriage with the ruling Sesodia dynasty of Mewar, which they had forfeited by contracting alliances with the Mughal emperors, on the understanding that the offspring of Sesodia princesses should succeed to the state in preference to all other children. The quarrels arising from this stipulation lasted through many generations.

Maratha and British Suzerainty (late 18th to mid 20th c.)

Mayo College was opened by the British Government to educate Rajput princes and other nobles in 1875 at Ajmer, Rajputana. In this picture, on the left, are the first four Rajput princes and on the extreme right is a Muslim. Rajput army officers with British army officers in 1936, before world war II The quarrels among the Rajputs led to the invitation of Maratha help from the rival aspirants to power, and finally to the subjection of all the Rajput states to the Marathas. The Marathas of the Deccan rose to power in the late 18th century. They conquered the major portion of India during this period, including the Rajput states of central and western India.

Jodhpur was conquered by Sindhia, who annexed the fort and town of Ajmer and levied a tribute of 60,000 rupees. James Tod, whose personal observation pertains to this period, records that internecine disputes, succession wars and the relentless exaction of levies by the Marathas left the Rajput states immiserated, and that some Rajput states repeatedly petitioned the British administration for protection. After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, (1817-1818), 18 states in the Rajputana region, of which 15 were ruled by Rajputs, entered into subsidiary alliance with the HEIC and became princely states under the British Raj. The British took direct control of Ajmer, which became the province of Ajmer-Merwara. A vast number of other Rajput states in central and western India made a similar transition. Most of them were placed under the authority of the Central India Agency and the various states' agencies of Kathiawar.

Nepal was conquered by a Rajput family in 1768. Nepal was never conquered by the British.

Independent India On India's independence in 1947, the native rules were given three choices, join one of the two states Indian or Pakistan, or remain independent. Rajput rulers of Rajputana and Central India acceded to newly-independent India and Rajputana, renamed Rajasthan, became an Indian state in 1950. The Rajput states acceded unto the
dominion of India and dominion of Pakistan. They were all merged into the union of India before 1950.

The Maharajas were given special recognitions and an annual amount termed privy-purse was set for them. Many of the Rajput Maharajas entered politics and served India as elected representatives. In 1971,
Indira Gandhi "de-recognized" the Maharajas and abolished the privy-purses. As a result, the Maharajas had to transformed some of their palaces into hotels. Some of them are now recognized as among the world's best.

Today, the Maharajas still fulfill some of the ceremonial duties as recognized elders, but as private citizens, in the Indian society.